Tuesday, 13 November, 2018

Star formation underway 250 million years after Big Bang

Far Off Oxygen is Evidence of Ancient Stars Formed Just After the Big Bang ALMA, NASA ESA Hubble Space Telescope W. Zheng, M. Postman, the CLASH Team Hashimoto et
Frank Williams | 17 May, 2018, 22:42

The work of Takuya Hashimoto and his group at Osaka Sangyo University sheds light on the formation of the first stars and suggests that future telescopes - such as the James Webb Space Telescope, which will replace the Hubble 'scope in orbit starting in 2020 - could find new evidence on the formation of first-generation stars, Bouwens said. MACS1149-JD1 is thus the most distant galaxy ever observed by ALMA of the VLT and the origin of the most distant oxygen ever observed by any instrument.

Along with the discovery of the oldest oxygen of the universe, the scientists have also proved that the early stars appeared after two hundred fifty million years of the Big Bang. Basic elements like oxygen, carbon and nitrogen weren't very common until the first stars had fired up, burnt out and exploded.

Another galaxy, GN-z11, is estimated to be 13.4 billion light years away based on observations with the Hubble Space Telescope, but those measurements were not as precise, they added.

Soon after the Big Bang, there was no oxygen in the universe, but the fusion processes of the first stars released it when they began to die.

"This galaxy is seen at a time when the universe was only 500m years old and yet it already has a population of mature stars", said Nicolas Laporte, a researcher at University College London in the United Kingdom and second author of the new paper. The VLT helped in studying the "spectral lines from hydrogen" and the Alma helped in studying the "spectral lines from oxygen".

Before the first stars kicked on, the universe was a relatively boring place, consisting primarily of radiation leftover from the Big Bang, as well as hydrogen and helium.

Call of Duty: Black Ops 4 Reveal Event Takes Place Today
The stream will be hosted on Twitch and YouTube , where it's expected that we'll see what's next for the popular series. For most Call of Duty games, only an average of 20 to 30 percent of players actually completed the campaign.

Using the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA) and the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, the team found extremely red shifted traces of ionised oxygen emitted from a remote galaxy known as MACS1149-JD1 some 13.3 billion years ago.

Astronomers published their research on 16 May in the journal Nature. "This detection pushes back the frontiers of the observable universe".

If astronomers discovered oxygen in MACS1149-JD1, it meant that inside the galaxy, stars have formed even earlier and died in the galaxy.

"Determining when cosmic dawn occurred is akin to the holy grail of cosmology and galaxy formation", said Richard Ellis, co-author of the paper.

"With MACS1149-JD1, we have managed to probe history beyond the limits of when we can actually detect galaxies with current facilities". To have a detectable amount of oxygen, MACS1149-JD1 would have had to go through a few generations of star births and deaths. "Since we are all made of a processed stellar material, this is really finding our own origins".

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