Male flight attendants were found to have higher rates of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (1.2% and 3.2% in flight crew compared to 0.69% and 2.9% in the general population, respectively), especially if they were exposed to high levels of occupational secondhand smoke before the introduction of smoking bans in 1998. The comparison indicated a higher risk of various types of cancers in flight attendants than the people who did not belong to that profession.
The paper deduced that the cancer rates were most likely a result of being exposed to occupation-related factors such as cosmic ionizing radiation at flight altitude.
Although these risk factors are known, cabin crews have not previously been included in the Occupational Safety and Health Administration protections that usually help safeguard workers in the U.S. In 2014, some protections were introduced; however, these do not involve the monitoring or regulation of exposure to radiation.
The co-author of the study, Irina Mordukhovich at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, said in a statement, "Something that somewhat surprised us, to some extent, was that we also saw a higher instance of breast cancer in women with three or more children". Job tenure did not appear to be associated with breast cancer, thyroid cancer, or melanoma in all women, but it was associated with higher risk of breast cancer in women who never had children (nulliparous women) and women who had three or more children. Funding for the study came from the Flight Attendant Medical Research Institute. 30 flight hours of exposure to ionizing radiation would equal one chest x-ray, but they spend much less time in the air than a flight crew. "This may be due to combined sources of circadian rhythm disruption-that is sleep deprivation and irregular schedules-both at home and work", Mordukhovich added.
A separate study in April involving almost 6,100 US flight attendants found no meaningful link between cosmic radiation or circadian rhythm disruption and several cancers.
The authors of the research say the findings suggest that efforts should be made to reduce the risk of cancer among flight crew members.
The research team reported in the most recent report released in the journal Environmental Health that airline crews have comparatively higher rate of risk to develop many types of cancers including melanoma and breast cancer, than that of general folk.
Disruptions in circadian rhythm - a person's daily sleep-wake cycle - are linked to an increased cancer risk, studies have shown.
Another possible threat to the health of cabin crew members is chemical exposure, according to the study. The current study used information from the 2014 to 2015 survey and compared it to health outcomes from 2,729 control subjects who were matched for socioeconomic status.
British experts have estimated airline crews receive a higher dose of radiation over a year than workers in the nuclear industry.
This is because they fly more northerly routes where exposure to cosmic radiation is highest. The study did not examine the health impact of frequent flying among airline passengers.
PPG Aerospace recently unveiled a new transparency film that can be applied to cockpit and cabin windows to prevent harmful UVA, UVB, and HEVBLUE rays from entering the aircraft.
Those complaining to the Made By Google account on Twitter have been advised to reboot their smart speaker and their WiFi router. Google, however, refused to confirm the cause of the outage and whether or not it was associated with a broken software patch.
He penned the Supreme Court's first major gay-rights decision in 1996, protecting LGBT Americans from discrimination. Windsor , which ended the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA); and the marriage equality ruling in 2015, Obergefell v.
And he also expressed worry about the degree to which Japanese striker Yuya Osako had been able to put pressure on his defence. Normally when we do a post about a ball , puck , or occasional hot dog hitting a fan in the head, it's bad news for the fan.
When the case finally went to trial in 2012, Apple emerged victorious, with a jury awarding Apple $1 billion in damages. This agreement only comes after a court sided with Apple in May, telling Samsung to hand over $ 539 million .
Recent reports seem to indicate his next team is the Los Angeles Lakers , the overwhelming favorites to sign the Akron native. The Lakers will be able to officially speak with James on July 1, assuming he does not exercise his player option.
England supporters were in party mood in Kaliningrad as they watched Germany crash out of the World Cup at the group stages. The players' performance will also be a factor in who wins the golden ball (the tournament's best player).
When a superstar one year away from free agency says he wants out, it usually puts that team up against the wall in making a deal. The Lakers - with Brandon Ingram , Lonzo Ball , Kyle Kuzma and Josh Hart - have the assets to spur action (pun intended).
Gundogan in particular was targeted with boos in the team's friendly against Saudi Arabia on the eve of the World Cup . It meant Sweden topped the group ahead of Mexico, with South Korea jumping into third with Germany rock bottom.
The protests come ahead of the renewed USA oil embargo against Iran, which could capsize the nation's fragile economy. Some hard-liners have called for new elections or for a military-led government to replace Rouhani's government.
Why England and Belgium may not want to win Group G
Jose Pekerman has refused to entertain the prospect of seeing Colombia's stuttering World Cup campaign end at the first hurdle. Many pundits think that England will be in a better position if they lose today and avoid a quarter-final clash with Brazil.
Germany knocked out of World Cup after South Korea loss
In some cases pressure like that can ignite a positive response, but for Germany the wheels were set to come off, and properly. We had to take risks, we couldn't go on and wait and because of this we opened the doors in our defence.
US Supreme Court Justice Kennedy to retire
The Supreme Court allowed it to go largely into effect in December while the legal challenge continued. Mr Trump's first high court nominee, Justice Neil Gorsuch, was confirmed in April 2017.
Disney’s bid for Fox clears USA antitrust hurdle
That threat prompted AT&T Inc.to buy Time Warner Inc., a deal the government challenged and lost at trial earlier this month. The slimmed down 21st Century Fox would retain the Fox broadcast network, Fox News, Fox Sports and Fox Business.
Who Is Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez?
She campaigned on a progressive policy platform, endorsing initiatives such as Medicare-for-all and tuition-free public college. More than a feeble attempt to reach her constituents, Alexandria's background solidifies herself as a true people's politician.
Watson soars for third Travelers' triumph
Rory McIlroy had a lot of trouble on the greens as he finished with a three-putt to end his day with a one-under 69. A return to the Titleist ball he previously used has coincided with some of the best results of his 12-year career.
President Trump Responds To Harley-Davidson
Rising trade tensions and retaliatory tariffs could pose serious risks for Harley-Davidson, rating agency Moody's said on Tuesday. The company says it's doing so because of tariffs it's facing in a trade dispute between the USA and the European Union.
Prince William Makes Historic Visit To Jordan
Palestinians seek east Jerusalem as the capital of a future state they hope will also include the West Bank and Gaza Strip. William is slated to arrive early on Monday evening, and be greeted at the airport by Tourism Minister Yariv Levin.